How to Calculate Economic Order Quantity EOQ

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His background is in e-commerce internet marketing and he has helped design the requirements for many features in Dynamic Inventory based on his expertise managing and marketing products online. Companies can also adapt the EOQ formula and model it according to the specifics of their business and industry. Get ShipBob WMS to reduce mis-picks, save time, and improve productivity. “I can literally go into my ShipBob dashboard and see exactly what I want to see with a few clicks. I can literally not look at the ShipBob platform for 3 weeks, and then log in and within 10 minutes of analyzing the data, I know exactly where we stand in the business.

What factors must be considered when calculating EOQ?

For example, instead of demand rate, they can use the predicted intensity of demand when figuring out order lead time. They can also use the carrying costs per unsold unit during order lead time instead of carrying costs per unit. Finally, they can extend the model by new variables, such as discounts, backordering costs, multiple items, and imperfect quality items. To calculate the EOQ for inventory you must know the setup costs, demand rate, and holding costs.

Assumptions while calculating EOQ

Holding costs, on the other hand, encompass storage fees, insurance, product deterioration, and the opportunity cost of capital tied up in inventory. The economic order quantity formula assumes consistent demand, fixed costs, and the absence of other external factors that may impact demand, holding costs, or setup costs. To calculate the economic order quantity, you will need to know your brand’s demand rate, setup costs, and holding costs.

EOQ Formula in Action

The Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) is the point at which the sum of the ordering and holding costs is at the minimum level. Ordering costs refer to all the costs incurred each time an order is placed for inventory with the company. The EOQ assumes demand is constant and inventory is reduced at a fixed rate until it reaches zero.

Cost Reduction

  1. The XYZ Equipment Company estimates its carrying cost at 15% and its ordering cost at $9 per order.
  2. Too much inventory means that the company is taking on unnecessary holding costs while also running the risk of increased costs due to damaged goods.
  3. This formula aims to identify the maximum number of units so that an organization can minimize its costs in terms of storing, taking delivery, and buying the units.
  4. What this can mean is that the seller’s MOQ is higher than a buyer’s EOQ and the order can’t be placed.
  5. Ordering the optimal number of products needed helps the company to keep its costs low and prevent dead stocks.

For the EOQ to work, demand should be measurably consistent year by year. Getting the sales numbers from January and assuming that you will experience the same demand for the rest of the year might lead to inventory shortages or overages down the line. It is calculated by dividing the annual demand by the number of orders annually.

Ordering costs

This puts business owners with no mathematical skills at a disadvantage. The efficient Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) models require detailed data to calculate several figures. Here is a breakdown of its ordering cost, holding cost, and annual demand for the year. DeMoon, a newly established small-scale glassware company, sells 250 China cups per month.

Your EOQ figure is a useful guide for setting minimum and maximum stock levels. The reason for this is that it makes assumptions about stock levels and demand throughout the year. Although the formula to calculate EOQ is simple when applied to a single product, calculating it manually for a whole inventory can be time-consuming and there is a margin for human error. Using inventory tools such as QuickBooks Commerce can help you save valuable time.

All such information is provided solely for convenience purposes only and all users thereof should be guided accordingly. Material acquisition costs are related to the number of orders placed during a given period. That is to say, EOQ refers to the size of the order that gives the maximum economy when purchasing any material. The formula does not account for things like seasonality trends, bulk order discounts or the supply chain disruptions that we are facing during the pandemic. But you can always make tweaks to the inputs based on your own situation. We believe everyone should be able to make financial decisions with confidence.

But if you continue ordering according to your EOQ plan, this assumption of constant demand may leave you with unsold products on your shelf during off-peak season. That will, in turn, drive up your inventory costs since you’re paying extra to store items that aren’t selling. Unleashed inventory software lets you set minimum and maximum stock levels for each product, and these will be based on your EOQ figure and ideal reorder point. When your system notices that you’re close to your minimum stock level, it will automatically prompt you to reorder and pre-populate a purchase order with the correct quantity. EOQ is based on ordering products from a third party, while EPQ refers to products being manufactured by the business, and therefore takes rate of production into account.

As explained by the economic concept known as economies of scale, the cost per unit of ordering a product falls, the larger the total quantity of the order. However, the larger the total quantity of an order, the higher the cost to hold and carry your inventory. Critics have argued that the assumptions of constant demand and fixed cost levels are a limitation of the EOQ model. Seasonal changes in demand, for instance, are known to occur for many businesses, and costs can vary over time. The EOQ formula is the square root of (2 x 1,000 shirts x $2 order cost) / ($5 holding cost), or 28.3 with rounding. The ideal order size to minimize costs and meet customer demand is slightly more than 28 shirts.

Instead, they should optimize the way they order and pay for products by using the Economic Order Quantity formula (EOQ). The XYZ Equipment Company estimates its carrying cost at 15% and its ordering cost at $9 per order. The estimated annual requirement is 48,000 units at a price of $4 per unit.

A more complex portion of the EOQ formula provides the reorder point. Economic Order Quantity may not consider all the factors that affect each business, but it is still a powerful tool to comparative balance sheet help an entrepreneur or manager to make more calculated decisions. What makes the EOQ a compelling tool is that it is dynamic and can be revisited from time to time as your business grows.

EOQ is a formula for calculating minimum purchase order requirements for a business, whereas MOQ is the minimum purchase order for the seller. Both EOQ and EPQ are a way of predicting inventory requirements to reduce costs and prevent stockouts. The more purchase orders and units being shipped and the higher the costs, the more likely it is that these averages will be more representative of the year as a whole. When dealing with very small figures, EOQ may be too simplistic – useful more as an ‘average scenario’ indicator than a reliable figure.

As inventory costs are optimized, you may consider changes in the product’s price policy. The Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) is known as a cash flow tool that helps to control cash that has been held down in a company’s inventory balance. Minimizing the level of inventory means more cash for other business investments. Ordering cost is inversely proportional to holding cost if the annual demand remains constant. As the number of orders increases, the ordering cost increases but the holding cost decreases.

In all these forms, there must be a legit economic justification for the inventories or material. From the formula above, we see that ordering the higher quantity would bring our inventory costs down to $61,515—a $1,485 savings. Now, the example we used above is pretty simplistic—and unfortunately, calculating real-life inventory costs is rarely that easy. So how do you determine the optimal number of items to order at a time? When you do the math, you find that ordering fewer units at a time brings your total cost down to $63,000. It’s a formula that helps businesses walk the tightrope of inventory management with confidence and precision.

This illustrates that the economic order quantity is always in the best interests of the firm. Click the button below to learn more about how ShipBob can help your brand optimize inventory management. The articles and research support materials available on this site are educational and are not intended to be investment or tax advice.